What are you committed to creating this year?

The 7 most important New Year questions you need to answer

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This New Year, I’ve decided to forego making a list of New Year’s resolutions in favor of a somewhat different approach.

I’ve created a PDF worksheet on which we can answer 7 critical questions that will help us take, both a broad and very specific look, at what we want to accomplish during this new year.

Here are the questions I think we should be asking ourselves. Please note that a pre-requisite to completing this sheet is having clarity about your personal core values and the things that matter most to you in life. Without doing some deep thinking around those issues, completing this sheet may seem daunting. And even if you have reflected on these matters, it will take a considerable amount of further reflection to fine tune your vision for this new year. Trust me—it’s worth it!

Wherever you are in the process, the most important thing is to begin.

Here are the questions:

1. What is your aspiration for this new year, in one word, or simple phrase?

Nothing clarifies things like a powerfully pithy phrase.

Maybe that’s the allure of hashtags in some social media channels? If so, what’s the hashtag you want to use to describe your life in the coming year? This word or very brief phrase should powerfully capture the meaning or theme of the year ahead. It helps to keep your goals front and center in a way that is very hard to ignore because it’s so easy to commit to memory.

For example, I’ve chosen a very short phrase to encapsulate everything I hope to achieve in the new year: “Successful Writer-Entrepreneur.” If 365 days from now I can make that single phrase ring true, then it was a successful year indeed.

This phrase can even serve as a mantra that you can repeat, and repeat, and repeat, until you have burnished it in your heart and mind.

It can help guide your decisions in every moment of every day.

It’s a powerful technique, try it!

2. Why does this matter so much to you?

So, let’s be clear. The vast majority of New Year’s resolutions are abandoned by June or July.  Many don’t even survive the first month! That’s because no matter what your heart desires, you will encounter real friction in the real world. Brick walls; obstacles; setbacks and the like will all make themselves known to you. Things tend to get hard. Sometimes, they get so hard that most rational folks realize that it’s just easier, and less painful, to quit.

But quitting is a word you should extricate from your vocabulary, at least when it comes to the work and goals that you so desperately want to engage with; the things that truly have meaning for you. You can’t quit pursuing these outcomes because they’re simply too important to you, no matter how implausible they may seem. And yet the friction will come and you will feel outmatched.

Popeye had spinach for his moments of weakness, and so do you, sort of. When things get hard and the proverbial stuff hits the fan, ask yourself, “Why?” and then answer forcefully and convincingly.

Remind yourself why you are doing this. Why is this so important to you right now?

If you don’t have a powerful WHY behind the things you are pursuing, then you might as well not bother with these questions in the first place.

I should also point out, that hapless answers like “making lots of money” or because it would be “nice” or “cool” to achieve something, won’t be nearly enough to get you over the obstacles when they materialize in front of you.

So it all boils down to “How badly do you want this?

As Randy Pausch once said:

“The brick walls are there for a reason. The brick walls are not there to keep us out. The brick walls are there to give us a chance to show how badly we want something.”

3. Who can hold you accountable to achieving your goals?

Joe Frazier once said something I’ve never forgotten:

You can map out a fight plan or a life plan, but when the action starts, it may not go the way you planned, and you’re down to your reflexes – that means your [preparation:]. That’s where your roadwork shows. If you cheated on that in the dark of the morning, well, you’re going to get found out now, under the bright lights.

As you already know, it’s way too easy to cheat on our own roadwork in the dark of the morning when there are no consequences for not showing up and doing the work. Since there’s no dramatic fight in front of the world—under the big lights—we skimp on effort and slide into mediocrity.

Without accountability, it’s also too easy to quit. But an accountability partner, someone to whom you must report on a monthly or quarterly basis, can keep you honest. This can be a close friend, colleague, coach or mentor. It should be someone thoughtful, whom you trust to give you excellent, unbiased feedback about your performance.

You will tell this person what you intend to do and then meet with him in person, at least every 90 days, to give them a report on what you accomplished and where you may have fallen short. This person should be able to listen carefully, question you, give you constructive criticism, and help you generate ideas on how you can deal with the different challenges that you’re encountering.

An accountability partner can mean the difference between meeting or quitting your goals.

4. What will your 5 areas of focus be?

This one is straight-forward.

Pick 5 areas of your life that you want to work on and in 1 or 2 words describe each of these areas of focus.

I recommend that your first area of focus be your health, since this is the single most important factor in anyone’s life.

Now you need to define the four other areas that you’ll focus on. Possible areas of focus may be: Work, Family, Career, Professional Development, Entrepreneurship, Community Service, Leisure, etc. What areas of your life do you want to strengthen this year? Is there an area of your life that you’ve been neglecting for a while and now needs your focus and attention?

Of course, there are probably many more than 5 areas where you would like to focus. Maybe you can come up with 10, 15 or many more, but you need to define your top 5 where you will apply your best energy and focus, all year long. This doesn’t mean that you can’t work on other areas of your life, but you commit to doing your very best on these five, every single day, all year long.

For each area of focus, set a S.M.A.R.T goal

Once you’ve defined your five areas of focus, it’s time to set at least one goal for each. This goal should be a stretch goal—very ambitious but not completely divorced from the performance level you’ve been able to achieve in the past. The best way to do this is to use the S.M.A.R.T methodology, which stands for Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic and Time-based.

I suggest you start with a general goal and then use the SMART methodology in reverse order.

Like so:

General Goal:I will lose weight.

Time-based: “By July 1st.”

Realistic: “I want to lose 20 lbs by July 1st, six months from now. This means losing 3.3 lbs per month which experts say is well within the bounds of a healthy weight-loss program.”

Attainable: “My goal is attainable because experts agree that a person can healthfully lose 4 to 6 lbs per month. I’m choosing to go slower than that so that I can adjust more gradually and I can come up with a diet and exercise regimen that isn’t extreme and suits my busy schedule. As I proceed, I can choose to speed up a bit later.”

Measurable: “My goal is measurable as follows: I will work to lose .77 lbs every week. That will require a caloric deficit of ~400 per day (3,500 calories per pound of weight x .77 ÷ 7 days per week). That will mean eating roughly 200 calories less per day and increasing my activity level in order to burn an additional 200 calories.”

Now we can put it all together and create a very specific and SMART goal:

Specific: My goal is to go from 240 lbs down to 220 lbs between Jan 1st and July 1st of this year. I will do this by burning a total of 400 calories per day for a total of .77 lbs lost every week for a total of 26 weeks.

By setting S.M.A.R.T. goals in this way, you’ll know if you’re getting closer or further from your goal every single day. This will help keep you on track.

5. What worked well for you last year?

Think back to the previous year. What went well? What worked for you? Think about your successes and everything you accomplished in the last year. Does any common theme emerge, in terms of contributing factors to your successes? What did you try that worked?

If any particular strategy, tactic, or activity worked well for you last year, these are things that you probably want to continue doing this year.

List them and reflect on why they may have been so effective. And most importantly—keep doing them!

5.5. What didn’t work last year?

Of course, for every single thing that worked there may be five things that didn’t. It is important to define and be mindful about these as well. It’s a no-brainer—refrain from repeating actions that underperformed or flat out didn’t work.

Newton’s Third Law of Motion states that:

For every action there is an equal and opposite re-action.

We must practice being more observant or mindful about our actions and the accompanying reaction from the Universe.

Also, things that work or didn’t work can be things in our personal or professional lives, and though we may think that they are fully distinct areas of focus, they are often intertwined.

6. What do you need to start doing?

There may also be some new things (strategies or tactics) that you may want to try out in the new year to see if they help you make progress.

What might some of those be?

Maybe this means getting more training, acquiring new, more productive habits or practicing new, more empowering behaviors.

6.5. What do you need to stop doing?

Everyone’s familiar with To-Do lists but Tom Peter reminds us of the importance of  To-Don’t Lists. These are things you need to STOP doing. Now. What isn’t a priority right now? What bad habits need to be jettisoned from your daily routine? What’s holding you back that you need to stop doing today?

These are critical considerations for your success and are too often ignored.

7. What skills, information or support (including teachers, mentors, coaches) do you need?

Finally, sometimes we struggle because we lack the technical skills to reach a goal. When you try, and try, and fall short of scaling the brick wall in your path, maybe it’s time to stop and “sharpen the saw” as Stephen Covey would say.

Maybe its time to hit the books? Or find a coach or mentor who can help you with your specific challenge?

It’s important not to grind our gears too hard.

If you’re working diligently to achieve something but you’re frustrated because you’re not getting the results you want, it may be time to take a step back to reassess the situation and see if there’s anything missing from your approach. You can find expert advice on just about any subject from books but, if you can afford it, you might save a lot of time by hiring someone qualified like a knowledgeable and skilled coach, to assess your performance and show you exactly what you need to do to improve.

Other times, it may be a lack of support that is holding you back. If so, who is an a position, or has access to the resources, that you need to make progress? How might you recruit their assistance and support? Who can connect you to the people or resources that can help you?

Once last piece of advice

Once you have thought about all of this, write down your answers on the worksheet.

Sign your name on it!

Then, make at least three copies and get them laminated. Use a hole-puncher to make a hole in the top center of one of the copies.

Place the laminated copies as follows: (1) On on your refrigerator (2) In your office or on your cubicle (3) Hanging from your shower head in the bathroom (this is the hole-punched version).

By doing this, your Areas of Focus, SMART goals, and strategic considerations are in front of you, all day, every day—even in the shower! Because they are plain as day and omnipresent, there can be no convenient forgetting about what you committed to creating in your life this year. In addition, having your goals clearly and prominently displayed in this manner recruits the full powers of your conscious and sub-conscious mind, so you can stay committed, motivated and laser-focused on what matters most.

You’ll feel energized, alive, purposeful and productive! And why shouldn’t you—you’re on track and doing the work that matters most to you.

And though there’s no method that can guarantee perfect results, by going through the process I have just described, I can guarantee that you will dramatically improve the odds of accomplishing all of your goals this year.

In late December, if you can say that you have accomplished even 80% of your goals, your future-self will look back and marvel with pride at all you’ve accomplished.

So make your future-self proud—click here to start filling out the worksheet and get to work!

Don’t be afraid to explore the new world

Four Journeys of Exploration to Thrive in the New World of Work

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Today is as a perfect day to talk about embarking on a journey of true exploration and discovery. After all, the stuff of Happy Mondays—meaning, purpose, fulfillment and impact—aren’t commodities that can be easily acquired. Finding them requires exploration, both of our inner-selves and the world-at-large.

If we want work that challenges and fulfills us, we need to give ourselves the permission to embark on this journey. If we want a great job, or to build a great company, I would argue that there are four worlds we need to explore first.

Why do you do it every day?

Happy Monday #2: Cultivate a Higher Purpose

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Why does everyone sing in the Happy Friday chorus but only a few solo voices sing the praises of Happy Monday?

The answer is a question.

Simon Sinek says “Start With Why” and I believe him.

Sakichi Toyoda developed the technique of the “5 Whys” to get to the irreducible truth, and I believed him too.

And I believe that your answer to the question “Why?” is how we make Monday mornings as joyful as Friday afternoons.

So I ask you: Why do you go to work?

To pay bills?

Understandable, but not a good answer. It seems too wasteful, and inefficient and hapless to trade time (the only non renewable resource) for mere money. If this is why we do it, then it’s no wonder that Mondays are seen as such an imposition and a heavy burden to bear.

The parable of the bricklayers

There is another way to look at our work, as suggested by this parable cited by Angela Duckworth in Grit: The Power of Passion and Perseverance:

Imagine that you encounter three people ostensibly “laying bricks.”

You approach the first person and ask, “Excuse me, what are you doing?”

“I’m laying bricks,” the person answers.

Then you approach the second person and ask the same question.

“I’m building a church,” she responds.

Finally, you approach the third person, who responds:

“I am building the House of God.”

Same job but dramatically different job descriptions.

They have radically contrasting answers to the question “Why?” and maybe that’s because they choose to focus on totally different things.

Mind your focus

Psychologists suggest that one way to increase your sense of well-being, at work and in life, is to mind what you focus on. At work, they counsel us to temper our “self-centered” nature with an enthusiastic regard for “other-centeredness.” Yes, we all have bills to pay but that’s just a subplot, we can consciously choose to focus on a fuller version of the story.

We should stop to consider, for example, that every business, and every job within it (no matter how exalted or menial in nature) exists for a purpose and that purpose is to serve others. If you take this as a given, have you then stopped to consider all the ways that this is true?

For one thing, we are there to serve the needs of our organization and our co-workers and their families (our tribe). Then come the needs of the customers and their tribes, whom we also serve. Then comes the larger community of which our organizations are a part and so on and so forth. As we elevate to an altitude of 50,000 feet you can appreciate how everything and everyone is connected to everything and everyone else. We can start to see how our jobs have meaning beyond what we might at first survey.

Use your platform every day

In my life, I have held all kinds of jobs but I have never seen any of them as beneath me. I see that all work is in the service of others, and thus, every job no matter how “lowly” or “humble” is imbued with meaning and the highest form of nobility—for what higher calling is there in life than to serve our fellow human beings?

That’s actually all there is.

Thus, every job is a platform to serve others and if we can appreciate the many ways that this is true, then we will have a powerful Why that will put a song in our hearts on Monday mornings.

You don’t need a promotion or a glamorous new job or a fancy degree to get started.

You can start today.

  1. Use your platform to make someone smile;
  2. Be someone’s good listener;
  3. Take a deeper interest in the people around you;
  4. Help someone solve a problem or get what they need;
  5. Share information that could be useful;
  6. Surprise someone with a kind gesture;
  7. Be a light and a positive influence on everyone you encounter today.

The possibilities are endless and your job will be transformed.

We’re not laying bricks anymore—we’re building the House of God.

This is the biggest mistake you can make as an employee

And the 5 Steps You Can Take to Fix it Immediately!

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You’re gainfully employed. Things are good. But the mistake most employees make is thinking that things will stay that way.

But that’s often not the case. You may find yourself changing jobs sooner than you’d like, and then what?

According to the U.S. Department of Labor, median tenure for private sector wage and salary workers over the age of 20 is 4.1 years. That means that half of these workers have less than 4 years on the job and half have more. By extension, this means that over the course of your career you will likely work for at least 11 different organizations before you “retire.”

But as technological change continues to impact employment trends, tenure at jobs is likely to keep dropping. So maybe we should stop thinking about the idea of a “job” and focus instead on the concept of a “project.” A project that lasts, on average, 3 to 4 years.

And because jobs and the workforce are being disrupted,  can we afford to be complacent and stop doing the hard work that it took to land that job in the fist place?

I think the answer to that question is NO! and that’s why I advise you to:

  • Always be building your body of quality work.
  • Always be telling your unique story.
  • Always be on the lookout for your next project.

Don’t wait till you’re out of a job to take action.

Here are 5 things you can do to ensure you are always gainfully employed, and that when one project ends, you have many new projects to choose from.

How to become the Michelangelo of Powerpoint

4 Books That Can Help You Turn Your Presentations Into Sublime Works of Art

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Maybe it’s so 10 years ago to talk about the sad state of the Powerpoint slides we see out there in the business world—in company meetings, Webex sessions, trade-shows and more. You’ve seen the kind of slides I’m talking about or (gasp) maybe you’ve made them yourself! You know, presentation slides riddled with bullet points, overflowing with text, and data, and unsightly graphs, or worse…clip art!

A while ago, Seth Godin and Steve Jobs valiantly decried bad Powerpoint but in the decade or so since, things haven’t improved much.

And what a waste this is!

When you get up in front of an audience you have a unique opportunity to connect with people; to transmit valuable information, insights, and emotions all wrapped-up in a powerful message that resonates and persuades.

But in a world besieged by artless, heartless, gutless Powerpoint, the signal is drowned out by the noise.

We can do better and it starts by going back to basics.

Here are 4 books that have helped me to create better presentations in Powerpoint, Keynote or any other software you may choose for this task. I’ve looked quite hard and these are the most helpful books I’ve found.

I encourage you to check them all out.

How to get better at any skill you desire

4 Things You Absolutely Need to Know to Become an Expert at Anything

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I was born with a pencil and sketch pad in my hand, drawing.

At least that’s the way it seems, because for as long as I can remember, that’s exactly what I’ve always been doing.

And by the time I was a teenager I had acquired the bad habit of drawing superheroes in class when the subject matter or teacher was too “boring” for me to pay attention. My classmates would marvel, “Man, you’re really good,  I wish I could draw like that!”

“You can!” I would invariably say. “All it takes is practice.”

Since that was a frequent exchange seemingly everywhere I went, I thought a lot about my supposed “talent.” Early on I reached the conclusion that I had no innate gift, and that my ability was merely a reflection of the countless hours I spent in my room trying to draw like the comic book masters I admired, Neil Adams and John Buscema. My first attempts were quite crude but as time went on, as I practiced faithfully, I acquired some proficiency.

If I had any innate gift, I thought, it was a deep-seeded desire and passion for drawing like the masters I admired. That passion made the “hard work” fun and I stuck with it. Eventually, I got good. Then people saw my ability and assumed I had a gift.

But the gift was the desire to draw, not the ability to draw.

We conflate those two things and, in doing so, limit our potential. It turns out you can shape your talent and there’s a methodology for doing so, correctly.

That’s the essence of Anders Ericcson’s new book Peak and the ideas contained in this remarkable work can forever change your life.

Here are 6 key takeaways from this inspiring book:

1. Forget everything you’ve heard about innate abilities or natural talent

Right from the start, Ericcson and Pool pull no punches in Peak.

In the very first chapter, we are treated to the paradigm-busting re-telling of the legend of Mozart.

Young Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, it seems, was a tot scarcely 7 years of age when he publicly performed sublime feats of musical prowess, on violin and keyboard instruments of all types.

In 1763 the young boy was dazzling audiences in Europe with his seemingly miraculous abilities. His feats appeared all the more magical because he possessed yet another “gift”—the gift of perfect pitch. Perfect pitch is an exceedingly rare ability that allowed the young Mozart to recognize the exact note being played on any instrument; even if he was in another room; even if the emitter of the sound wasn’t a musical instrument at all! In other words, Mozart was so gifted that if he heard a bird singing, or your car made a sufficiently musical noise—he could tell you what musical notes were being reproduced.

Miraculous?

Maybe not.

Ericcson gleefully lifts the curtains and lets you peer behind Mozart’s magical performances. I won’t spoil it for you, but the point is as powerful and thunderous as a lightning strike. After decades of studying prodigies, geniuses, savants and top experts in different fields, Ericsson has yet to find a single case that cannot be attributed to purposeful, deliberate practice.

Why is this important for you to know?

Because science is telling you that you can follow a clearly defined process to get better at any skill or ability you desire. It’s not a matter of talent or natural gifts. It’s a matter of practice, of doing the work.

Think how valuable and empowering this insight is in the 21st century world of the fourth industrial revolution. Those who embrace entrepreneurship and lifelong learning will flourish. Those who don’t, will pay a heavy toll. Now, lifelong learners have a clear process to get better, faster. That’s why I think that Ericsson’s book is one of the most important books of the last couple of decades.

It takes away all the excuses we make for not pursuing the work that matters most to us.

2. Build the correct set of mental representations

Ericsson tells us that expert performers can perform at a high level because over time they have developed complex, robust, and finely detailed “mental representations” about what works.

Think of it this way: what would happen if I were put in a baseball game to face a major league pitcher hurling a ball right at me at speeds in excess of 90 miles per hour? Mind you, I have played almost no baseball in my life.

Well, the first thing that will happen is that I will likely freak out. Survival instincts will kick in and my likely reaction is to gird myself against the missile. It might take me weeks, maybe months (years?), to get totally used to the sensation of staring down those projectiles coming straight at me, without flinching.

Then, I’d have to learn how to position my body, how to swing the bat properly, how to pick up on subtle clues from the pitcher about what pitch is coming next, how to distinguish between a speed pitch and off-speed pitch and acquire the muscle memory to respond appropriately, and a million and one other little things which, together, combine to create a nearly magical result.

This very fine tuning of your thought processes, instincts and motor coordination, to create a specific result, is what Ericsson has dubbed mental representations.

That’s why “Big Papi” hits homers and I would likely swing the bat a full second (or two) after it smacks the catcher’s mitt.

But almost no one who’s reading this blog will be facing a major league pitcher anytime soon, but we all face professional and personal challenges that we could meet with gusto with the right mental representations.

Maybe you want to sell more widgets; market more effectively using social media; pass some professional certification; become a more powerful communicator; write a novel; become a world-class salsa dancer?

Want to be an exceptional performer in those fields?

Get an existing elite performer in that field to coach you. If that’s not possible, at least observe them carefully and try to reconstruct the mental representations they are working with. What do they do? What routines do they follow? What habits do they faithfully keep? How do they train? What do they read? What do they say? How do they think? Deconstruct as much as you can so you can see exactly what they’re doing. Then compare their approach to your own to see if there are any clear gaps that could improve your own game.

Then get busy working on those.

3. Engage in Deliberate Practice

In Angela Duckworth’s book, Grit, there’s a memorable exchange between her and Ericsson concerning Duckworth’s running. She tells him that she has been running for quite some time, spending many hours that could be considered “practice.” So how come she’s no where near good enough to become an olympian, she asks.

“Interesting,” says Ericsson as he proceeds to ask her some questions about the nature of her practice sessions.

The takeway is that you can run every day for a million years, if you like, and never get anywhere good enough to be an Olympian because what counts is not hours spent practicing, it’s hours spent in deliberate practice.

Here are the components of this more purposeful and effective form of practice:

  1. Motivation
    This one’s obvious. You need a healthy dose of motivation to do the work and put forth the effort to improve your performance.
  2. Design
    Practice tasks should be designed taking into account your pre-existing knowledge and skills so that the practice session challenges you to reach beyond your comfort zone, but not so far that you feel completely lost. Practice sessions must have clear goals and objectives.
  3. Feedback
    Practice must give you immediate informative feedback. This feedback should provide you with clues as to where you may be falling short and thus stimulate learning and growth.
  4. Repetition
    And of course, one must repeat the practice tasks and similar tasks until there are clear signs of proficiency.

4. It Takes Time and Patience

Lastly, because there is nothing magical about deliberate practice, becoming an expert performer is all about the “mundanity of excellence.” It’s all about trying, failing, and trying again. But this takes time. Perhaps many years.

Years ago, Malcolm Gladwell took Ericsson’s ideas and postulated the 10,000 hour rule. He asserted that to become a top expert invariably required 10,000 hours, the rough equivalent of 10 years of practice. But Gladwell, according to Ericcson and Pool, got a lot of things wrong.

For example, there is no 10,000 hour rule. In some fields, the amount of required practice may significantly exceed or fall short of that mythical mark. Furthermore, it’s not mere practice that counts, it’s deliberate practice that ensures continuous growth and learning.

The takeaway for us is that improving our performance in any endeavor will take time, and lots of it, but the ultimate number of hours required will vary widely by skill and by the level of proficiency we seek. Again, we may not all wish to become Major League Baseball players. Maybe all you want is to master your company’s accounting system or learn how to manipulate data sets and apply statistical regressions. If so, chances are you will require months, or a couple of years, in order to achieve proficiency, but nothing close to 10,000 hours.

Now that you’re free from the tyranny of the talent myth—what will you do?

Here’s the essence of what you need to know: You have enough talent to become an expert in any field you choose. Don’t be fooled by the tyrannical notion that you should give up because you’re not a natural. What matters is: your willingness to do the hard work of deliberate practice; your patience; your perseverance to stick with it for the long haul.

And if you’re the parent of small children, just imagine what this gift can do for them.

It should be comforting to you, that in a world of constant flux, a world that demands life-long learning, there is a simple stepwise process you can follow to acquire the ever-changing skills you need to stay competitive. Think of it as the Missing Manual of the Fourth Industrial Revolution.

Ericsson’s ideas are a God-send. And they arrived not a minute too soon.

Now that you know—where will you choose to go?

This is one of the most important business books in the last 30 years

"Peak" will free you from the oppression of the talent myth

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What if I told you that Peak: Secrets of the New Science of Expertise may very well be one of the most important self-development books written in the last 30 years, at least?

Would you believe me?

The reason I can make this bold claim with any conviction derives from my own personal experience, especially as a business consultant who’s worked with thousands of leaders, managers and employees around the world. Put simply—Anders Ericsson’s decades of research and his latest book turns all of our wildly popular, but completely inaccurate, notions about human potential on their proverbial heads.

What politicians fail to share about the frightening danger ahead

The one thing you need to know about work in the 21st century

Walls or Webs

Thomas L Friedman, the New York Times columnist and famed author of The World is Flat, just wrote an insightful and thought-provoking piece that I think everyone needs to read. It elegantly explains the challenge faced by the middle-class in our country, describes how both political parties are shielding you from the harsh reality of our times, and underscores many of the ideas we’ve been exploring in this blog for the last year.

In his column titled,”Web People vs. Wall People” Friedman argues that, as the winds of technological change blow increasingly harder, candidates from both political parties are advocating the building of walls to protect us from the punishing gale.

He writes: